There is an easy classification of killer whales: the northern killer whale and the southern killer whale. The distinction is helpful in understanding how very different each type is from one another in size, markings, vocal ranges, migratory patterns, and consumption habits.
pod of New Zealand
pod of the Gulf of Mexico
pod of the Hawaiian Islands
pod of the British Isles
The issue coming up to 2019 is that the genetic disposition of all killer whales has evolved to the ecosystems to which they live over thousands of years, except there is one gene that all land mammals and humans possess called PON1 (paraoxonase 1).
This fundamental gene is described in a ScienceMag journal article called Ancient convergent losses of Paraoxonase 1 yield potential risks for modern marine mammals helps defend marine creatures against man-made toxins such as organophosphorus compounds, but is missing in killer whales.
According to the government of Canada there are 246 endangered species, 142 threatened species, 215 of special concern, and 23 extirpated species. The bigger picture is that killer whales have become a threatened species due to human-environment interactions, populations becoming extremely low.
The federal government has issued $61.5 million in conservation efforts but is that enough?
Some recommendations include:
Reducing the total fishery removal of Chinook salmon by 25 to 35 per cent
Closing fisheries where whales forage for food
Introducing a new mandatory requirement for all marine vessels — including recreational boats (minimum distances of 50-400 meters)
Adding to the underwater hydrophone network to measure and track noise impacts of individual vessels
Whale watching bans
Under the Fisheries Act, anyone who disturbs marine mammals could be fined up to $100,000 or a maximum of $500,000 for a criminal offence
What do you think should happen?
Follow these links for more information:
Species At Risk Act here
Marine Mammals Regulations here
Fisheries Act here
Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act here
Nisga'a Final Agreement Act, RSBC 1999, c 2 (BC) here
Measures to help save key whale species here
‘It would really hurt this town’ here
Effect for all coasts in Canada here